Long-Term Followup and Deterioration Rate of Anterior Substitution Urethroplasty

J Urol 2014; 192: 808-813

Purpose: We investigated deterioration of the success rate of penile and bulbar substitution urethroplasty.
Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective descriptive analysis of patients who underwent substitution urethroplasty between July 1994 and September 2007. Inclusion criteria included 1-stage anterior urethroplasty using penile skin or oral mucosa with a minimum of 6 years followup. Patients with posterior urethral stricture, failed hypospadias or incomplete clinical records were excluded from analysis. The primary study outcome was postoperative failure-free survival and the secondary outcome was to identify significant predictors of treatment failure. The clinical outcome was considered a failure when any postoperative instrumentation was needed. Descriptive statistical analysis was done as well as Kaplan-Meier analysis, and univariable and multivariable Cox regression analysis.
Results: A total of 359 patients were included in study. Median followup was 118 months. Of the procedures 265 (73.8%) were successful and 94 (26.2%) failed, including 91 (96.8%) within the first 5 years. Substitute tissue type (oral mucosa vs skin) was the only significant predictor on univariable analysis (HR 1.86, p = 0.005). This result was confirmed by multivariable analysis adjusting for age at surgery, stricture length and etiology, urethroplasty type and previous treatments (HR 2.26, p = 0.001).
Conclusions: Deterioration after anterior 1-stage substitution urethroplasty seems to develop within the first 5 years. Oral mucosa showed greater failure-free survival than penile skin and 1-stage penile urethroplasty showed the same success rate as bulbar urethroplasty.