Anterior urethroplasty using a new tissue engineered oral mucosa graft: surgical techniques and outcomes

J Urol 2018; 200: 448-456.

PURPOSE: We investigated whether tissue engineered material may be adopted using standard techniques for anterior urethroplasty.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicenter study in patients with recurrent strictures, excluding those with failed hypospadias, lichen sclerosus, traumatic and posterior strictures. A 0.5 cm2 oral mucosa biopsy was taken from the patient cheek and sent to the laboratory to manufacture the graft. After 3 weeks the tissue engineered oral mucosal MukoCell® graft was sent to the hospital for urethroplasty. Four techniques were used, including ventral onlay, dorsal onlay, dorsal inlay and a combined technique. Cystourethrography was performed 1 month postoperatively. Patients underwent clinical evaluation, uroflowmetry and post-void residual urine measurement every 6 months. When the patient showed obstructive symptoms, defined as maximum urine flow less than 12 ml per second, the urethrography was repeated. Patients who underwent further treatment for recurrent stricture were classified as having treatment failure.
RESULTS: Of the 38 patients with a median age of 57 years who were included in study the strictures were penile in 3 (7.9%), bulbar in 29 (76.3%) and penobulbar in 6 (15.8%). Median stricture length was 5 cm and median followup was 55 months. Treatment succeeded in 32 of the 38 patients (84.2%) and failed in 15.8%. Success was achieved in 85.7% of ventral onlay, 83.3% of dorsal onlay, 80% of dorsal inlay and 100% of combined technique cases. No local or systemic adverse reactions due to the engineered material were noted.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that a tissue engineered oral mucosa graft can be implanted using the same techniques suggested for anterior urethroplasty and native oral mucosa, and guaranteeing a similar success rate.